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  • W.B.C.S. Notes On – Physics – Spherical Lenses.
    Posted on June 10th, 2019 in Physics
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    W.B.C.S. Notes On – Physics – Spherical Lenses.

    • A transparent material (normally glass) bound by two surfaces, of which one or both surfaces are spherical, is known as “spherical lens.”Continue Reading W.B.C.S. Notes On – Physics – Spherical Lenses.

    Convex Lens

    • A lens may have two spherical surfaces, bulging outwards (as shown in the image given below), is known as convex lens or a double convex lens.

    Convex lens

    • The middle part of this lens is bulged (thicker) and at the both ends, it is narrow.
    • Convex lens converges the light rays; therefore, it is also known as converging lens.

    Concave Lens

    • A lens may have two spherical surfaces, curved inwards (as shown in the image given below), is known as concave lens or a double concave lens.

    Concave Lens

    • The middle part of this lens is narrow (curved inwards) and the both the edges are thicker.
    • Concave lens diverges the light rays; therefore, it is also known as diverging lens.
    • A lens, either a concave or a convex, has two spherical surfaces and each of these surfaces forms a part of the sphere. The centers of these spheres are known as centers of curvature, represented by English letter ‘C.’
    • As there are two centers of curvature, therefore, represented as ‘C1’ and ‘C2.’
    • An imaginary straight line, passing through both the centers of curvature of a lens, is known as principal axis.
    • Optical center is the central point of a lens. It is represented by ‘O.’
    • An aperture is the actual diameter of the circular outline of a spherical lens.
    • Principal focus of lens is represented by ‘F.’
    • A lens has usually two foci represented as F1 and F2.
    • Focal length is the distance between the principal focus and the optical center of a lens. It is represented by ‘f.’
    • The following table illustrates, the nature and position of images formed by a convex lens −
    Position of Object Position of Image Size of Image Nature of Image Image
    At infinity At the focus F2 Highly diminished, pointsized Real and inverted At infinity F2
    Beyond 2F1 B/w F2 and 2F2 Diminished Real and inverted Beyond 2F1
    At 2F1 At 2F2 Same size Real and inverted At 2F1
    B/w F1 & 2F1 Beyond 2F2 Enlarged Real and inverted B/w F1 and 2F1
    At focus F1 At infinity Infinitely large or highly enlarged Real & inverte d At F1
    B/w focus F1& optical center O On the same side of the lens as the object Enlarged Virtual and erect B/w F1
    • The following table illustrates, the nature and position of images formed by a concave lens −
    Position of Object Position of Image Relative Size of Image Nature of Image Image
    At infinity At the focus F1 Highly diminishe d, pointsized Virtual and erect At Focus1
    B/w infinity & optical center O of the lens B/w F1 & optical center O Diminishe d Virtual and erect B/w O

    Lens Formula

      • The formula is expressed as −
    1v1u=1f1v−1u=1f
    • Lens formula expresses the relationships among the object-distance (i.e. u), image-distance (i.e. v), and focal length (i.e. f) of a lens.

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