W.B.C.S. Main 2018 Question Answer – Pali Literature- Anicca.
WBCS মেইনস ২০১৮ প্রশ্নের উত্তর – পালি সাহিত্য- আনিকা।
“The three kinds of feelings, O monks, are impermanent, compounded, dependently arisen, liable to destruction, to evanescence, to fading away, to cessation — namely, pleasant feeling, painful feeling, and neutral feeling.” (Anicca Sutta – Translated from the Pali by Nyanaponika Thera).Continue Reading W.B.C.S. Main 2018 Question Answer – Pali Literature- Anicca.
Anicca in Buddhism means impermanence. It is the Pali version of Sanskrit Anitya. The world in which we live is called the phenomenal world. It is a mortal world in which beings are subjected to the cycle of births and deaths, which is known in the Indian religious traditions as Samsara. Suffering is the characteristic feature of those who are caught in this cycle. Their suffering arises because they are subject to desires, which leads to attachment and from which arises attraction and aversion.
Beings suffer when they are brought into contact with the things they are averse to or when they are separated from the things to which they are attached. This union and aversion to the phenomena arising from attachment and desires is responsible for our suffering. The problem of suffering is acute and a serious problem in our world, because all things here are subject to impermanence and there is no simple way to escape from it.
How Buddhism deals with impermanence
Early Buddhism dealt with the problem of impermanence in a very rationale manner. The Buddha noted that impermanence was inherent in human existence. He recognized three forms of Anicca or impermanence, namely compounded, constructed, or fabricated. They pointed to an undeniable and inescapable fact of human existence from which nothing on earth was ever free. Closely associated with the concept of Anicca, is the concept of Anatta or non-existence of eternal Self. The Buddha suggested that each being was an aggregate of impermanent things. There was nothing like an eternal Self to which beings could cling to escape from impermanence or in which they could find a sanctuary.
Buddhism affirms that phenomenal existence or conditioned existence is characterized by five distinct processes, on which human beings have no control and which none can ever change. The five processes are:
1. Growing old
2. Falling sick
3. Dying and destruction
4. Decay of perishable things
5. The passing away of that which is liable to pass.
None can escape from these five aspects of impermanence until one achieves liberation or Nirvana on the Eightfold Path, practicing right living and cultivating right attitude and awareness. In the normal course of their existence, we may not be able to escape from impermanence, but we can learn to cope with it by understanding its implications and development sameness and equanimity through detachment.
Buddhism and Hinduism on impermanence
Hinduism also believes in the impermanent nature of life. But it deals with this problem differently. According to Hinduism, a human being has both permanent and impermanent aspects. As long as he gets involved with impermanent things, he is subject to suffering and rebirth, but when turns his attention to the permanent aspect, which is hidden within him, he opens a new door of possibilities for himself to overcome impermanence and achieve liberation.
Thus, Hinduism suggests that impermanence can be overcome by locating and uniting with the center of permanence that exists within oneself. This center is the Soul or the self that is immortal, permanent and ever stable.
In Hinduism, Atman is the fundamental truth that exists in every being, while at the microcosmic level it is Brahman who is the fundamental and supreme truth of all existence. He who realizes Atman verily becomes Brahman and attains immortality.
The Buddha differed radically with the solution suggested in the Vedas to overcome impermanence. He departed radically from the established beliefs regarding Self. For him the most immediate and pressing problem of human existence was impermanence and it needed to be addressed directly, without indulging in speculative theories regarding the Self and eternal existence. What was apparent and verifiable about our existence was the continuous change one underwent and unless it was resolved in a meaningful way there was no escape from suffering.
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